Chemical Ingredients of Fresh and Dry Wild Mushrooms from Bosnia and Herzegovina


Affiliations

  • University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sarajevo, 71300, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sarajevo, 71000, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • University of Tuzla, Faculty of Science, Tuzla, 75 000, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sarajevo, 71000, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, 71000, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Abstract

Many species of wild mushrooms are used as a delicacy in the diet, but data on their nutritional value and the effects of their storage on nutritional values are rare. The aim of this study was to determine the content of Free Amino Acids (FAAs), total carbohydrates, vitamin C, and total anthocyanins in six wild mushroom species collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Results showed that the drying of mushrooms does not have much influence on the presence of essential and non-essential amino acids. Mushrooms are an excellent source of amino acids whether they are fresh or dry. The total carbohydrate content varied between 12.25-62.75 mg g-1 for fresh mushroom extracts and 40.98-167.24 mg g-1 for dry mushroom extracts. The total carbohydrate content in dry mushrooms is significantly higher than in extracts of fresh mushrooms. The vitamin C content of mushrooms varied between 0.02-1.95 mg g-1 for fresh mushrooms and 0.0-0.63 mg g-1 for dry mushrooms. A lower vitamin C content was found in dry mushrooms, which can be affected by the method of drying mushrooms. The total anthocyanins content varied between 0.39-0.66 mg CGE mL-1 for fresh mushroom extracts and 0.10-0.19 mg CGE mL-1 for dry mushroom extracts. Lower total anthocyanins content was found in dry mushroom extracts, probably due to the destruction of anthocyanins by drying. Our research shows that selected wild edible mushrooms, fresh and dry, have considerable nutritional potential. However, further research is needed on both other nutrients and anti-nutrients in these mushrooms to support their nutritional dominance.


Keywords

Free Amino Acids (FAAs), Total Anthocyanins, Total Carbohydrates, Vitamin C, Wild Mushrooms

Full Text:

References

Wu F, Zhou LW, Yang ZL, Bau T, Li TH, Dai YC. Resource diversity of Chinese macrofungi: Edible, medicinal and poisonous species. Fungal Diversity, 2019; 98(1): 1-76. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s13225-019-00432-7.

Gründemann C, Reinhardt JK, Lindequist U. European medicinal mushrooms: Do they have potential for

modern medicine?-An update. Phytomedicine, 2020;66:153131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2019.153131. PMid:31790898.

Valverde ME, Hernández-Pérez T, Paredes-López O. Edible mushrooms: Improving human health and promoting quality life. International Journal of Microbiology, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/376387. PMid:25685150 PMCid:PMC4320875.

Philip D. Biosynthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag nanoparticles using edible mushroom extract. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 2009, 73.2: 374-381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2009.02.037. PMid:19324587.

Martinez-Medina GA, Chávez-González ML, Verma DK., Prado-Barragán LA., Martínez-Hernández JL., Flores-Gallegos, A. C., et al. Bio-funcional components in mushrooms, a health opportunity: Ergothionine and huitlacohe as recent trends. Journal of Functional Foods. 2021; 77:104326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2020.104326.

Ouzouni PK, Petridis D, Koller, WD, Riganakos KA. Nutritional value and metal content of wild edible mushrooms collected from West Macedonia and Epirus, Greece. Food Chemistry. 2009; 115(4):1575-1580. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.014.

Kalač P. A review of chemical composition and nutritional value of wild‐growing and cultivated mushrooms. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2013; 93(2):209218. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.5960. PMid:23172575.

Bach F, Helm CV, Bellettini MB, Maciel GM, Haminiuk CWI. Edible mushrooms: A potential source of essential amino acids, glucans and minerals. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017; 52(11):2382-2392. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13522.

Reis FS, Barros L, Martins A, Ferreira IC. Chemical composition and nutritional value of the most widely appreciated cultivated mushrooms: An inter-species comparative study. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2012; 50(2):191-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.10.056. PMid:22056333.

Agarwal S, Fulgoni III VL. Nutritional impact of adding a serving of mushrooms to USDA Food Patterns-a dietary modeling analysis. Food and Nutrition Research. 2021; 65. https://doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v65.5618. PMid:33613153 PMCid:PMC7869438.

Rosa GB, Sganzerla WG, Ferreira ALA, Xavier LO, Veloso NC, da Silva J. et al. Investigation of nutritional composition, antioxidant compounds, and antimicrobial activity of wild culinary-medicinal mushrooms boletus edulis and lactarius deliciosus (Agaricomycetes) from Brazil. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 2020; 22(10). https://doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020036347. PMid: 33426823.

Liu Y, Tikunov Y, Schouten RE, Marcelis LF, Visser RG, Bovy A. Anthocyanin biosynthesis and degradation mechanisms in Solanaceous vegetables: A review. Frontiers in Chemistry. 2018; 6:52. https://doi.org/10.3389/ fchem.2018.00052. PMid:29594099 PMCid:PMC5855062.

Ozen T, Kizil D, Yenigun S, Cesur H, Turkekul I. Evaluation of bioactivities, phenolic and metal content of ten wild edible mushrooms from western Black Sea region of Turkey. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 2019; 21(10). https://doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2019031927. PMid:32450035.

Tajalli F, Malekzadeh K, Soltanian H, Janpoor J, Rezaeian S, Pourianfar HR. Antioxidant capacity of several Iranian, wild and cultivated strains of the button mushroom. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2015; 46(3):769-776. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1517-838246320140180. PMid:26413059 PMCid:PMC4568870.

Vamanu E, Nita S. Antioxidant capacity and the correlation with major phenolic compounds, anthocyanin, and tocopherol content in various extracts from the wild edible Boletus edulis mushroom. BioMed research international. 2012; 2013:1-11. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/313905. PMid:23509707 PMCid:PMC3591155.

Moser M. In: Keys to Agarics and Boleti (Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales) Kibby, G, editor. London: Roger Phillips; 1983. p. 1-535.

Uzelac B. Gljive Srbije i Zapadnog Balkana. Beograd: BGV Logik; 2009.

Harborne JB. Methods of plant analysis. In: Phytochemical Methods, Springer, Dordrecht; 1984. p. 1-36. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5570-7_1.

John A, Barnett G, Miller TB. The determination of soluble carbohydrate in dried samples of grass silage by the anthrone method. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 1950; 1(11):336-339. https://doi.org/10.1002/ jsfa.2740011106.

Rahman MM, Khan MMR, Hosain MM. Analysis of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) contents in various fruits and vegetables by UV-spectrophotometry. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 2007; 42(4):417-424. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjsir.v42i4.749.

Lee J, Durst RW, Wrolstad RE, Eisele T, Giusti MM, Hach J, et al. Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH differential method: Collaborative study. Journal of AOAC international. 2005; 88(5):1269-1278.

https://doi.org/10.1093/jaoac/88.5.1269. PMid:16385975.

Espinosa M. Spectrophotometric determination of anthocyanin content in six common vegetables. Present to the college of arts and sciences central Philippine university: Thesis; 2014. p. 6-18.

Hu D, Chen W, Li X, Yue T, Zhang Z, Feng Z, ... Li L. Ultraviolet irradiation increased the concentration of vitamin D2 and decreased the concentration of ergosterol in shiitake mushroom (lentinus edodes) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) powder in ethanol suspension. ACS omega. 2020; 5(13):7361-7368. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b04321. PMid:32280877 PMCid:PMC7144143.

Türkoğlu A, Duru ME, Mercan N. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Russula delica Fr: An Edidle Wild Mushroom. 2007. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejac/78055.

Mota C, Santos M, Mauro R, Samman N, Matos AS, Torres D, Castanheira I. Protein content and amino acids profile of pseudocereals. Food Chemistry. 2016; 193:55-61. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.043. PMid:26433287.

Le Plénier S, Walrand S, Noirt R, Cynober L, Moinard C. Effects of leucine and citrulline versus non-essential amino acids on muscle protein synthesis in fasted rat: A common activation pathway?. Amino Acids. 2012; 43(3):11711178. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-011-1172-z. PMid:22160257.

Scott TA. Biochemie. Ein lernprogramm: By P. Karlson. Pp. 510. A volume in the Thieme Lernprogramm series published by Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, 1977. Paperback. DM34. (In German). 1977. https://doi.org/10.1016/03074412(77)90079-6.

Heger J. Essential to non-essential amino acid ratios. Amino Acids in Animal Nutrition. 2003; 103:204. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851996547.0103.

Kan Bakır T, Boufars M, Karadeniz M, Ünal S. Amino acid composition and antioxidant properties of five edible mushroom species from Kastamonu, Turkey. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2018; 15(2):80-87. https://doi.org/10.21010/ajtcamv15i2.10.

Salihović M, Šapčanin A, Pehlić E, Uzunović A, ŠpirtovićHalilović S, Huremović M. Amino Acids Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Mushrooms from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Kemija u Industriji. 2019; 68. https://doi.org/10.15255/kui.2018.034.

Yang J, Zhang J, Wang Z, Zhu Q, Wang W. Remobilization of carbon reserves in response to water deficit during grain filling of rice. Field Crops Research. 2001; 71(1):47-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-4290(01)00147-2.

Ayaz FA, Torun H, Özel A, Col M, Duran C, Sesli E, et al. Nutritional value of some wild edible mushrooms from the Black Sea region (Turkey). Turkish Journal of Biochemistry/Turk Biyokimya Dergisi. 2011; 36(4). https:// doi.org/10.4236/fns.2011.22007.

Loewus FA. Improvement in anthrone method for determination of carbohydrates. Analytical Chemistry. 1952; 24(1):219-219. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60061a050.

Merdivan S, Bettin P, Preisitsch M, Lindequist U. Quality control of medicinal mushrooms: Comparison of different methods for the quantification of polysaccharides/β-Glucans. Planta Medica. 2014; 80(16):P1N22. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1394612.

Wang XM, Zhang J, Wu LH, Zhao Y L, Li T, Li JQ, et al. A mini-review of chemical composition and nutritional value of edible wild-grown mushroom from China. Food Chemistry. 2014; 151:279-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. foodchem.2013.11.062. PMid:24423533.

Turfan N, Pekşen A, Kibar B, Ünal S. Determination of nutritional and bioactive properties in some selected wild growing and cultivated mushrooms from Turkey. Acta. Sci. Pol. Hortorum. Cultus. 2018; 17(3):57-72. https://doi.org/10.24326/asphc.2018.3.6.

Beluhan S, Ranogajec A. Chemical composition and non-volatile components of Croatian wild edible mushrooms. Food Chemistry. 2011; 124(3):1076-1082. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.07.081.

Mau JL, Lin HC, Chen CC. Non-volatile components of several medicinal mushrooms. Food Research International. 2001; 34(6):521-526. https://doi.org/10.1016/S09639969(01)00067-9.

Cheung PC. Mini-review on edible mushrooms as source of dietary fiber: preparation and health benefits. Food Science and Human Wellness, 2013: 2(3-4):162-166. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.fshw.2013.08.001.

Watanabe F, Yabuta Y, Bito T, Teng F. Vitamin B12containing plant food sources for vegetarians. Nutrients. 2014; 6(5):1861-1873. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6051861. PMid:24803097 PMCid:PMC4042564.

Vlasenko V, Turmunkh D, Ochirbat E, Budsuren D, Nyamsuren K, Samiya J, et al. Medicinal potential of extracts from the chanterelle mushroom, Cantharellus cibarius (Review) and prospects for studying its strains from differs plant communities of ultracontinental regions of the Asia. In: BIO Web of Conferences. EDP Sciences. 2019; 00039. https://doi.org/10.1051/bioconf/20191600039.

Patras A, Brunton NP, O’Donnell C, Tiwari BK. Effect of thermal processing on anthocyanin stability in foods; mechanisms and kinetics of degradation. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2010; 21(1):3-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2009.07.004.

Linster CL, Van Schaftingen E. Vitamin C. The FEBS Journal. 2007; 274(1):1-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.17424658.2006.05607.x PMid:17222174.

Ahmed N, Singh J, Chauhan H, Anjum PGA, Kour H. Different drying methods: Their applications and recent advances. International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety. 2013; 4(1):34-42.

Ferreira IC, Barros L, Abreu, R. Antioxidants in wild mushrooms. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2009; 16(12):1543-1560. https://doi.org/10.2174/09298670978790 9587. PMid:19355906.

Ozen T, Darcan C, Aktop O, Turkekul I. Screening of antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and chemical contents of edible mushrooms wildly grown in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening. 2011; 14(2):72-84. https://doi.org/10.2174/138620711794474079. PMid:20958253.

Tulio AZ, Chanon AM, Janakiraman N, Ozgen M, Stoner GD, Reese RN, et al. (188) Effects of Storage Temperatures on the Antioxidant Capacity and Anthocyanin Contents of Black Raspberries. Hort. Science. 2006; 41(4):1043A-1043. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.41.4.1043A.

Alasalvar C, Al-Farsi M, Quantick PC, Shahidi F, Wiktorowicz R. Effect of chill storage and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, carotenoids, phenolics and sensory quality of ready-to-eat shredded orange and purple carrots. Food Chemistry. 2005; 89(1):69-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.013.

Ferreira D, Guyot S, Marnet N, Delgadillo I, Renard, CM, Coimbra M. A Composition of phenolic compounds in a Portuguese pear (Pyrus communis L. var. S. Bartolomeu) and changes after sun-drying. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002; 50(16):4537-4544. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020251m. PMid:12137473.

Manzi P, Aguzzi A, Pizzoferrato L. Nutritional value of mushrooms widely consumed in Italy. Food Chemistry. 2001; 73(3):321-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/s03088146(00)00304-6.

Nakalembe I, Kabasa JD, Olila D. Comparative nutrient composition of selected wild edible mushrooms from two agro-ecological zones, Uganda. Springerplus. 2015; 4(1):1-15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-015-1188-z. PMid:26306295 PMCid:PMC4542863.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.